World Cultures

Links To Cultures Around The World

Database Rights

I believe that all the work on this website is covered under Database Rights, meaning that if you try to copy my site in part or entirety without my permission I can sue you. I’ve spent almost 3 years collecting all the links (which is why many links don’t work – rest assured I will slowly go through all the dead links) so have some respect and don’t steal my database.

Furthermore if I have a link to your copyrighted or databased property and you wish to have it removed or changed, please e-mail (e-mail address will be added here) and I will comply with your wishes. No offence is meant to anyone, any organisation, any Nation, any State, any Religion, most political beliefs etc. Thanks

Below are some extracts about ‘Database Rights’, which I hope I’m allowed to reproduce here (If not, tell me and I will remove them). Hopefully they illustrate that my site is covered legally as my own property.


"From 1998 a new right came into effect in UK, namely the database right. The aim of this legislation is to provide more certain protection than that already provided by copyright. The purpose of this new database right is to protect the investment in a database. A database right arises automatically at no cost to you.


A database will qualify for protection if the creator/owner of the database is an EEA resident and the database is a “collection of individual works, data or other materials arranged in a systematic or methodical way” and either qualitatively or quantitatively there has been a substantial investment in either the getting, checking or presenting of the contents of the database. If your database qualifies for protection then you can enforce your rights against businesses that extract or reutilise a substantial part of your database, or alternatively repeatedly extract and re-utilise an insubstantial part."




"A database, that is a collection of data or other material that is arranged in such a way so that the items are individually accessible, may be protected by copyright and/or database right. For copyright protection to apply, the database must have originality in the selection or arrangement of the contents and for database right to apply, the database must be the result of substantial investment. It is, of course, entirely possible that a database will satisfy both these requirements so that both copyright and database right apply.


Database right is in many ways very similar to copyright so that, for example, there is no registration for database right - it is an automatic right like copyright and commences as soon as the material that can be protected exists in a recorded form. Database right can apply to both paper and electronic databases."




"On 11 March 1996, European Directive 96/9/EC concerning the legal protection of databases was passed. From that date on, Member States were required to protect databases both by copyright and by a new "sui generis" right that controls extraction and reutilization of the contents in a datatabase. Although the Directive required implementation to be complete on 1 January 1998, most States in fact did not make this deadline (only Germany, Sweden, the UK and Austria did). By now, all Member States have adopted the Directive.


The Database Directive introduces a new right, explicitly protecting collections of facts regardless of any creativity. It also confirms that, if there is creativity involved in the creation of a database, that database is protected by copyright (article 3)."


"The Directive protects "databases in any form" (article 1 section 1). This definition not only covers electronic databases, but also paper databases such as telephone books, or microfilm collections."


"Even with the harmonized rules on copyright protection for databases, there are still a large number of databases that are left unprotected. To overcome this problem, the Directive also introduces a so-called sui generis protection regime.


To qualify for the sui generis database protection, the creator of the database must show that there has been qualitatively and/or quantitatively a substantial investment in either the obtaining, verification or presentation of the contents (article 7 §1). It does not matter what the selection method was, or how much creative effort was involved. Thus, this is purely a "sweat of the brow" protection regime."


"The owner of a protected database is the entity that took the initiative and the risk of investing in the creation of the database (Recital 41). This recital also explicitly excludes subcontractors. This is unlike copyright, where a subcontractor normally retains the copyright unless the contract stipulates otherwise."


"The owner of a protected database has the right to prevent extraction and/or re-utilization of the whole or of a substantial part, evaluated qualitatively and/or quantitatively, of the contents of that database (article 7 §1). Also, he has the right to prevent repeated and systematic extraction and/or re-utilization of insubstantial parts of the contents of the database implying acts which conflict with a normal exploitation of that database or which unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the maker of the database (article 7 §5)."




Legal Disclamer

Worldcultures contains a variety of links to other websites and references to resources available through government, nonprofit, and commercial entities. Links to websites from the Worldcultures website are provided solely for informational and educational purposes and the convenience of the user. I make every effort to review linked sites for authenticity, but cannot and do not guarantee the information provided. If you decide to access any site linked to this site, you do so entirely at your own risk. The links and resources are in no way intended to represent an exhaustive listing.


Opinions and Interpretations

This website is maintained out of an interest in Cultural Groups in all there numerous entangled forms. No support or endorsement of any particular organization, project, group, movement, campaign and/or nation/state is intended, implied nor suggested.


The inclusion of a link or links to any group(s) on this website is done so for casual and/or scholarly interest, and is not intended, implied nor suggested as either support or endorsement of such organization(s), project(s), group(s), movement(s) campaign(s) and/or nation(s)/state(s).


The listing of a website for a particular organization, project, group, movement, campaign and/or nation/state does not necessarily mean that the particular website listed is the definitive one for that particular organization, project, group, movement, campaign and/or nation/state.


The owner of this website takes no responsibility for any offer(s), action(s), product(s) or service(s) offered or taken by any party or parties represented by website(s) listed, nor for any content of any website for which a hypertext link is provided, or the URL for that site is listed.


Recognizing that the World Wide Web is a dynamic, interactive, and exploratory environment, the content of the linked sites may change and expand over time.


User's Obligation to Obey Applicable Laws

While many of the images and documents in websites linked from Worldcultures may be in the public domain, others may be protected under copyright, trademark, and other intellectual property laws of the United Kingdom and foreign countries. Such laws generally prohibit (subject to civil and criminal penalties) the unauthorized reproduction, distribution, adaptation, display, and performance of protected works. It is the user's obligation to comply with these applicable laws, including, where necessary, seeking the advice of counsel regarding the application of the fair use doctrine to the proposed educational use of materials.



I make no warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any text, image, or materials in any website linked with the "Worldcultures" website, or represent that their use would not defame or violate or infringe upon the rights, including, without limitation, copyrights, trademarks, or any other intellectual property rights, moral rights, publicity rights, or privacy rights of any other person or entity.


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